African proportion-  When “the head approximately one-third the size of the body” (17)
Alluvial- is a substance much like river mud.
Bernard Fagg-  (1915- 1987) studied archeology and anthropology at Dulwich and Downing College, Cambridge. In 1939 he was commissioned by the British government to work in the Nigerian Colonial Administration. When fighting began he enlisted with the Royal West African Engineer and served in the East African campaign. When he returned to Nigeria he was stationed in Jos, this was the main tin mining area in the region. In 1943-4 his first essays on a new culture called Nok were published. He was the foremost skilled archeologist to work in Nigeria he understood the pressing need to store, provide research capability and exhibit Nigeria’s historical cultural artifacts. He worked tirelessly for over two decades to fulfill his goal. By the time of his retirement in 1963 he had helped to found eight museums in Nigeria. His first project of a museum in Jos, which he help build with his own hands. Each museum was run by the British Federal department of Antiques and the museum employed six archeologists and ethnographers. Bernard Fagg should be given a great deal of credit for all the knowledge gained about this culture. (20)
Chief figures- These figures represent the important qualities a chief should possess such as power, fertility, and courage.
Coiling method- A pottery method used when the potter rolls a piece of clay into a long worm-like piece and then will overlap the piece in a circle. Eventually this will form a bowl shape. Once the bowl reached the desired size the potter will cover the bowl with slip to smooth the surface.
Excavation site- is the area where artifacts have been found. Archeologists mark off this area and begin work to uncover artifacts.
Homogeneous- unity, all looking the same
Importance of jewelry – Jewelry in most African cultures shows the status or even lineage of the person wearing it.
Iron-smelting- being able to melt and weld iron to make tools, weapons, or jewelry.
Millet- a corn or grit like crop grown in African and used by many societies as a main food source.
Janus figures- This figure type depicts a two-faced person, one male and one female. They are often used to illustrate the importance of male and female duality in the universe, a common in many African cultures.
Jukun - town in Nigeria where Nok style terra cottas were found. They were named after the town they were found in.
Kastsina- town in Nigeria where Nok style terra-cottas were found. They were named after the town they were found in.
Radiocarbon dating- All living things contain carbon14. Archeologists can use this information to determine the age of an object by comparing Carbon 14 level to another object whose date is known.
Slip- A “mixture of clay and water into a thick-cream consistency that is used to coat dry or unbaked pottery. Often of the same clay as the underlying piece, it can be employed for sealing joints, attaching handles, and so on. It serves also to smooth the potter surface, can acts as a base for under glaze painting, and can be tinted for decorative purposes” (16)
Sludging- A very straightforward well drilling technique used in ancient India but still used considerably in third world countries, where resources is limited, but manual labor plentiful.
“A tube is moved up and down in a hole filled with water (mud). Every time the pipe hits the bottom, some soil material is loosened and suspended into the drilling mud, which is constantly pumped out of the borehole by a valve, taking advantage of the same reciprocating movement.
“In its basic form, a bamboo pipe (internal knots removed) is used, and the operator uses his hand on top of this pipe as a valve. On upstroke, a vacuum is created in the pipe under the operator's hand and the column of mud in the pipe is lifted. On downstroke, new mud enters the pipe from beneath and the upper portion is expulsed.
For wells deeper than about 10 meters, and especially when heavier metal drill pipe is used, a lifting device is installed. This ranges from a rope over a pulley or a pole, attached to the drill pipe with a rope and used as a lever. In this case, the driller only acts on down stroke, giving an extra push to the drill stem, while the upward movement is assured by other workers, pulling the rope or pushing down the lever, or by a small motor.
The basic method will work only in loose (clay, silt, sand and light gravel) soils, but adaptations of the principle are applied in a number of modern hand drilling methods, with valves either at the top or at the bottom of the pipe and with various models of drill bits for different soil conditions. Well-documented examples are the Rota-sludge, Baptist and some variants of the EMAS drilling methods.
Perhaps the simplest and cheapest of them all is the Baptist well drilling method, which uses lightweight and cheap PVC pipe for most of the drill stem and in which the drill bit doubles as a foot valve. Wells over 100 meters deep have been drilled this way.” (15)
Snake- The snake is a popular religious symbol for many tribes across Africa. They often represent rebirth because of their ability to shed their skin.
Sokoto- town in Nigeria where Nok style terra-cottas were found. They were named after the town they were found in.
Subtractive method- Describes a basic pottery technique. Instead of started with nothing and adding clay to a piece, when using the subtractive method the potter starts off with more clay than is needed and takes pieces away almost like carving.
13    “Bernard Fagg.” Wikipedia. 2009. 21 March.2009 <>
15    “Sludging.” Wikipedia. 2009. 05 March. 2009 <>
16    Ed. Myers, Bernard, ed. The Dictionary of Art. New York. McGraw-Hill. 1969
17    Perani, Judith and Smith, Fred. The Visual Arts of Africa. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998.