Location: Peru is located in South America at the geographic coordinates of 10 00 S, 76 00 W. Its border countries are Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. It shares control of Lake Titicaca with Bolivia, which is the world's highest navigable lake.

Capital: Lima

Population: 27,949,639

Language: Three main languages are spoken throughout Peru. Spanish and Quechua are the two official languages. Aymara is the third.

History: Ancient Peru consisted of several Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas. The Incas empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peru gained its independence from the Spanish on July 28, 1821, which is now a National holiday.